Potential of Total Saponins and Tannins Isolated from the Stem Bark of Dialium guineense in the Amelioration of Kidney Dysfunction Caused by Carbon Tetrachloride

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria.
1Abu*, O.D. and 2Ikponmwosa-Eweka, O.
Corresponding Author: osahon.abu@uniben.edu ; Tel: 2347086427636
Recieved Date: June 2022; Accepted Date: June 2022; Published Date: June, 2022

Background/Objective: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used experimentally to cause liver damage, which affects other organs. This study investigates the potential of total saponins and tannins isolated from Dialium guineense stem bark in ameliorating kidney dysfunction caused by CCl4. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n = 20) weighing 160 – 180 g (mean weight = 170 ± 10 g) were randomly assigned to four groups (5 rats per group): normal control, CCl4 control, total saponins and total tannins groups. Except for normal control, the rats were administered a single oral dose of CCl4 and afterwards treated with total saponins or tannins isolated from the stem bark of the medicinal plant. The rats received 150 mg/kg body weight, bwt, of total saponins or tannins orally for 28 days. Indices of kidney function were measured. Results: The urea and creatinine levels were significantly increased by CCl4, but they were markedly reduced by total saponins and tannins of D. guineense stem bark (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the levels of chloride, sodium and potassium ions as well as relative organ weight among the groups (p > 0.05). The histopathological examination of rat kidneys showed that the phytochemicals mitigated CCl4-induced renal damage in the rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that total saponins and tannins of D. guineense stem bark have the potential to ameliorate kidney dysfunction caused by CCl4.

Keywords: Dialium guineense, Electrolytes, Histology, Kidney function, Saponins, Tannins
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